Liquid-Liquid/Gas-Liquid Separators

  • Separate emulsions
  • Bench top to plant scale
  • PLUG & PLAY
  • Simple tools for chemists

Description

Whether working in batch or flow, most chemists encounter challenges when performing difficult liquid-liquid/gas extractions. Zaiput Flow Technologies’ patented liquid-liquid/gas-liquid separators solve the most difficult separation problems with ease and solid, proven results.

We offer a variety of products that provide simple solutions to significant problems including: separation of emulsions, elimination of the need to run batches at half capacity and slow settling time, to name a few. Let’s look at the details of issues that may be encountered without our technology when working in batch or flow:

Problems with Batch Processes before Zaiput

Problems with Flow Processes Before Zaiput

The modern approach to chemical manufacturing seeks to continuously leverage the advantages of continuous manufacturing

Before Zaiput separators existed, only a piecewise continuous process existed due to the lack of inline separation capabilities.

Important Features:

  • Bench top to plant scale
    Our devices are well-characterized and directly scalable from lab to pilot to production.
  • Separate emulsions with ease
    Instead of using agitation to form microdroplets, we improve mixing by using a flow pattern that has a large surface area, thus avoiding emulsions that generally cause separation issues. Existing emulsions tend to break as they encounter the membrane.
  • Independent of density
    The operating principle behind the technology is based on a liquid’s wettable nature, so it works with any liquid-liquid system regardless of their density difference.
  • Excellent chemical compatibility
    Machined in materials with excellent chemical resistance, Zaiput separators work with a wide range of organic solvents, in acidic and basic solutions.
  • Easy usage and maintenance
    Plug and play functionality at all scales.
  • Continuous operation for batch/flow chemistry
    Our devices can be easily used and integrated within either a batch process or a continuous one.

Other Advantages:

  • Cost effective
    Our devices come at a lower price than competing technologies. Our devices also reduce your operating costs thanks to minimal maintenance and highly efficient performance.
  • Minimal internal volume
    Our devices eliminate the need for moving or coalescing parts, and also have a drastically reduced dead volume.
  • Green technology
    Our devices have excellent separation performance and high extraction efficiency, reducing solvent consumption. They are  suitable for any chemical process, from bulk to high-value chemical industries.
  • Pressure rating
    The metal shell design allows Zaiput separators to be used inline with a pressurized process (up to 290 psi/ 2 MPa).
  • Inherently safe
    No electricity is required, no headspace and minimal internal volume.

How It Works

If the video does not play properly, click here to see our demo.

Zaiput Flow Technologies’ patented separators provide continuous separation of an immiscible phase (liquid-liquid or gas-liquid) by leveraging differences in wetting properties of the liquids onto a porous membrane.

    • When a stream composed of two phases (for example: an aqueous liquid and an organic liquid or a gas and a liquid) enters the separator, one phase will have an affinity for the membrane and fill the pores (this is referred to as the “wetting” phase), and the other phase will be repelled and will not fill the pores (this is referred to as the “non-wetting” phase).
    • Once the membrane pores are filled with the wetting phase, a pressure differential is applied between the two sides of the membrane. This pressure differential is finely adjusted by Zaiput’s patented internal pressure controller to apply just enough pressure to “push” the wetting phase without forcing the non-wetting phase through the pores (see figure below). The separator is designed to maintain a constant pressure differential across the designated flow rates even when conditions are fluctuating. As a result, the separator can be used as a “plug-and-play”, modular unit.
    • A key aspect of the technology is that it exploits differences in wettability and surface forces to accomplish the separation; as a result, the device can separate liquids with the same density and emulsions with continuous operation.

 


Separator Function: When a hydrophobic membrane is in place, the organic, which is the wetting phase (purple), passes through the membrane (dotted line) while the aqueous, which is the non-wetting phase (blue), is retained.

Performance

Examples of liquid-liquid separations that can be used to test the performance of the Zaiput separator. Note that the applications are not limited to this list.

Liquid 1 Liquid 2
Water
NaCl solution
HCl solution
Brine liquor
Light oil
Alkanes (hexane, heptane, octane)
Acetate (ethyl acetate, isopropyl acetate)
Toluene
Long-chain alcohols
Diethylene glycols (at 60 ˚C)
Methyl ethyl ketone
Benzene

Performance under pressure disturbance: Zaiput’s separator is designed to handle pressure disturbances in the system so that the separation of the phases can be achieved without any manual control. To demonstrate this ability, we carried out the following experiments:

Here, we feed the separator with two immiscible liquids (water-hexane, water-ethyl acetate). The separator has a hydrophobic membrane inside. We simulated downstream operations or disturbances by setting a value of back pressure on the outlet of the organic stream. For successful complete separation, water should exit on one side, while the organic exit on the other side. That being said, there are two modes of incomplete separation: (1) Retention of organic in the aqueous phase (2) Breakthrough of water through the membrane with the organic phase The results of experiments with either water-hexane or water-ethyl acetate are shown here (where R represents % of retention and B the % of breakthrough):

The results show that a simple separation (hexane/water, interfacial tension 50 mN/m) runs with complete separation at all of the tested total flow rates, with different ratios of flow rates, and at different levels of disturbances created in the system (with increasing back pressure on the organic side). The separator also has excellent performance when challenged with a pair of liquids with very low interfacial tension (ethyl acetate/water, interfacial tension 6.8 mN/m). Under these conditions, the separator provides complete separation at different total flow rates and with different ratios of flow rates but tolerates fewer disturbances to achieve complete separation in a single step.

Advantages

Separation of Emulsions

  • Emulsions and rag layers typically take long periods of time to gravity separate leading to plant inefficiencies.
  • Zaiput’s separator allows for easy separation of emulsions by removing the matrix fluid and forcing the emulsion to coalesce.
  • Since separation is density independent, even the most challenging emulsions can be separated with ease.

Small Footprint

  • Zaiput’s separators requires a very small footprint compared to traditional batch separation processes since a storage/separatory tank is not required.
  • Zaiput’s devices can be easily stored on a cart or in a lab chemical hood, and one unit can be used for multiple reactors.

Process Integration

  • Zaiput’s separators can be easily integrated and used downstream or in-line to separate a biphasic stream.

Faster Separations and Better Reactor Availability

  • Zaiput’s separators allow continuous separation, which could speed up the overall process.
  • The separation can be done faster compared to a typical batch process, and extraction can be done in line, allowing for more available reactor space for reactants, thus increasing output.

Small Internal Volume

  • Zaiput’s separators allow continuous separation, which could speed up the overall process.
  • The separation can be done faster compared to a typical batch process, and extraction can be done in line, allowing for more available reactor space for reactants, thus increasing output.

Lack of Headspace

  • Zaiput’s separators do not have any headspace which is present in separatory funnels or tanks.
  • Depending on the chemistry in use, headspace might cause safety concerns. Our separators resolve this issue and simplify air sensitive separations and extractions.

Quick Quench and Separation

  • Very useful when the reaction stream needs to undergo a rapid quench, due to the presence of an unstable compound.

Membranes

A variety of membranes for your Zaiput separator are available to optimize separation performance and throughput. Membranes are available in both hydrophobic and hydrophilic, they are low cost and easy to replace.

Membrane selection process:

The key parameters for identifying a suitable membrane for separation are the interfacial tension between the two phases and the viscosity of the permeating phase (this has an effect on throughput of the device).

In general, the lower the interfacial tension, the smaller the pore size needs to be. However, smaller pore size reduces the maximum viscosity that can be accommodated by the membrane.

Separators

  • SEP-10
  • SEP-200-SS (Stainless steel 316)
  • SEP-200-HS (Hastelloy C276)
  • SEP-200-FP (Perflourinated Polymers)
  • SEP-3000-SS (Stainless steel 316)
  • SEP-3000-HS (Hastelloy C276)

Membranes

  • A variety of membranes both PTFE Hydrophobic and PTFE Hydrophilic are available in different pore sizes to optimize your separation.
  • Membranes are low – cost and easy to maintain.

>> Membrane Sampler Package : MEM-10 (available on request for larger devices) – 7 packs of 10 membranes
>> Quick Start Package option : START-10 ( membrane samples MEM-10 + replacement diaphragm)
>> Specific membrane ordering info:

Contact us for the latest membrane offering

For general applications, we recommend reviewing the information in the Membrane Selection Guide.

If you have any questions, contact us at support@zaiput.com

Literature

Scientific articles featuring our separators:

Liquid-Liquid Separation

Su Wang, Yeersen Patehebieke, Zheng Zhou, Zhibing Zhang, and Xiao Wang, Catalyst-free biphasic oxidation of Thiophenes in continuous-flow, Journal of Flow Chemistry, Jul 2020.

Jorge García‐Lacuna, Prof. Dr. Gema Domínguez, and Prof. Dr. Javier Pérez‐Castells, Flow Chemistry for Cycloaddition Reactions, ChemSusChem, Jul 2020.

Elizabeth Farrant Automation of Synthesis in Medicinal Chemistry: Progress and Challenges, ACS Med. Chem. Lett., Jul 2020.

Alejandro Mata, Ulrich Weigl, Oliver Flögel, Pius Baur, Christopher A. Hone and C. Oliver Kappe, Acyl azide generation and amide bond formation in continuous-flow for the synthesis of peptides, React. Chem. & Eng., Mar 2020.

Kristina Søborg Pedersen, Christina Baun, Karin Michaelsen Nielsen, Helge Thisgaard, Andreas Ingemann Jensen and Fedor Zhuravlev, Design, Synthesis, Computational, and Preclinical Evaluation of natTi/45Ti-Labeled Urea-Based Glutamate PSMA Ligand, Molecules, Mar 2020.

Peter Sagmeister, Johannes Poms, Jason Williams and C. Oliver Kappe, Multivariate analysis of inline benchtop NMR data enables rapid optimization of a complex nitration in flow, React. Chem. & Eng., Feb 2020.

Adam D. Clayton, Luke A. Power, William R. Reynolds, Caroline Ainsworth, David R. J. Hose, Martin F. Jones, Thomas W. Chamberlain, A. John Blacker & Richard A. Bourne, Self-optimising reactive extractions: towards the efficient development of multi-step continuous flow processes, Journal of Flow Chemistry, Feb 2020.

Victor-Emmanuel H. Kassin, Thomas Toupy, Guillaume Petit, Pauline Bianchi, Elena Salvadeo & Jean-Christophe M. Monbaliu, Metal-free hydroxylation of tertiary ketones under intensified and scalable continuous flow conditions, Journal of Flow Chemistry, Feb 2020.

Chetsada Khositanon, Kanyaporn Adpakpang, Sareeya Bureekaew & Nopphon Weeranoppanant, Continuous-flow purification of silver nanoparticles and its integration with flow synthesis, Journal of Flow Chemistry, Feb 2020.

Govaerts, S., Nyuchev, A. & Noel, T., Pushing the boundaries of C–H bond functionalization chemistry using flow technology, J Flow Chem, Feb 2020.

Antimo Gioiello, Alessandro Piccinno, Anna Maria Lozza, and Bruno Cerra, The Medicinal Chemistry in the Era of Machines and Automation: Recent Advances in Continuous Flow Technology, Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Feb 2020.

V Volker Hessel, Nam Nghiep Tran, Sanaz Orandi, Mahdieh Razi Asrami, Michael Evan Goodsite, Hung T. Nguyen, Continuous-Flow Extraction of Adjacent Metals – a Disruptive Economic Window for In-Situ Resource Utilization of Asteroids?, Angewandte Chemie, Jan 2020.

Francesca Tentori, Elisabetta Brenna, Michele Crotti, Giuseppe Pedrocchi‐Fantoni, Maria Chiara Ghezzi and Davide Tessaro, Continuous‐Flow Biocatalytic Process for the Synthesis of the Best Stereoisomers of the Commercial Fragrances Leather Cyclohexanol (4‐Isopropylcyclohexanol) and Woody Acetate (4‐(Tert‐Butyl)Cyclohexyl Acetate), Catalysts, Jan 2020.

Edith Chow, Burkhard Raguse, Enrico Della Gasper, Steven J. Barrow, Jungmi Hong, Lee J. Hubble, Roger Chai, James S. Cooper and Andrea Sosa Pintos, Flow-controlled synthesis of gold nanoparticles in a biphasic system with inline liquid–liquid separation, React. Chem.Eng., Jan 2020.

Nopphon Weeranoppanant and Andrea Adamo, In-Line Purification: A Key Component to Facilitate Drug Synthesis and Process Development in Medicinal Chemistry, ACS Med. Chem. Lett., Dec 2019.

Adam D. Clayton, Artur M.Schweidtmann, Graeme Clemens, Jamie A. Manson, Connor J.Taylor, Carlos G.Niñod Thomas W.Chamberlain, Nikil Kapur, A. John Blacker, Alexei A.Lapkin, Richard A.Bourne, Automated self-optimisation of multi-step reaction and separation processes using machine learning, Chemical Engineering Journal, Nov 2019.

Le Sang, Jiacheng Tu, Han Cheng, Guangsheng Luo, Jisong Zhang, Hydrodynamics and mass transfer of gas–liquid flow in micropacked bed reactors with metal foam packing, AIChE Journal, Sep 2019.

Martina Letizia Contente Francesca Paradisi, Transaminase‐catalyzed continuous synthesis of biogenic aldehydes, ChemBioChem, June 2019.

Martina Letizia Contente, Stefano Farris, Lucia Tamborini, Francesco Molinari, and Francesca Paradisi, Flow-based enzymatic synthesis of melatonin and other high value tryptamine derivatives: a five-minute intensified process, Green Chem., May 2019.

Luke Rogers and Klavs F. Jensen, Continuous manufacturing – the Green Chemistry promise?, Green Chem., May 2019.

Zinia Jaman, Tiago J. P. Sobreira, Ahmed Mufti, Christina R. Ferreira, R. Graham Cooks, and David H. Thompson, Rapid On-Demand Synthesis of Lomustine under Continuous Flow Conditionss, Org. Process Res. Dev., Feb 2019.

René Lebl, David Cantillo, and C. Oliver Kappe, Continuous generation, in-line quantification and utilization of nitrosyl chloride in photonitrosation reactions, React. Chem. Eng., Jan 2019.

Matthew P. Thompson, Itziar Peñafiel, Sebastian C. Cosgrove, and Nicholas J. Turner, Biocatalysis Using Immobilized Enzymes in Continuous Flow for the Synthesis of Fine Chemicals, Organic Process Research and Development, Jan 2019.

Petra Martini, Andrea Adamo, Neilesh Syna, Alessandra Boschi, Licia Uccelli, Nopphon Weeranoppanant, Jack Markham, and Giancarlo Pascali, Perspectives on the Use of Liquid Extraction for Radioisotope Purification, Molecules, Jan 2019.

Jenny-Lee Panayides, Darren Lyall Riley, Rachel Chikwamba and Ian Strydom, Landscape and opportunities for active pharmaceutical ingredient manufacturing in developing African economies, Reaction Chemistry and Engineering, Jan 2019.

Samir Diab, Nikolaos Mytis, Andreas G.Boudouvis, and Dimitrios I.Gerogiorgis, Process Modelling, Design and Technoeconomic Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE) Optimisation for Comparative Evaluation of Batch vs. Continuous Pharmaceutical Manufacturing of Atropine,, Computers and Chemical Engineering, Dec 2018.

Dr. Mathieu Lesieur, Dr. Claudio Battilocchio, Dr. Ricardo Labes, Dr. Jérôme Jac,q Dr. Christophe Genicot, Prof. Steven V. Ley, and Dr. Patrick Pasau, Direct Oxidation of Csp3−H bonds using in Situ Generated Trifluoromethylated Dioxirane in Flow, Chemistry, Nov 2018.

Clément Audubert, Alexanne Bouchard, Gary Mathieu, and Hélène Lebel, Chemoselective Synthesis of Amines from Ammonium Hydroxide and Hydroxylamine in Continuous Flow, The Journal of Organic Chemistry, Oct 2018.

Kristina Søborg Pedersen, Joseph Imbrogno, Jesper Fonslet, Marcella Lusardi, Klavs F. Jensen and Fedor Zhuravlev, Liquid–liquid extraction in flow of the radioisotope titanium-45 for positron emission tomography applications, Reaction Chemistry and Engineering, Oct 2018.

Anne-Catherine Bédard, Andrea Adamo, Kosi C. Aroh, M. Grace Russell, Aaron A. Bedermann, Jeremy Torosian, Brian Yue, Klavs F. Jensen, and Timothy F. Jamison, Reconfigurable system for automated optimization of diverse chemical reactions, Science, Sep 2018.

Carlos Mendoza Noémie Emmanuel Carlos Paez Laurent Dreesen Jean-Christophe M. Monbaliu, and Benoît Heinrichs, Improving Continuous Flow Singlet Oxygen Photooxygenations with Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles ChemPhotoChem Aug 2018.

Eric Yu, Hari P R Mangunuru, Nakul S Telang, Caleb J Kong, Jenson Verghese, Stanley E Gilliland III, Saeed Ahmad, Raymond N Dominey, and B Frank Gupton, High-yielding continuous-flow synthesis of antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine, Beilstein J Org Chem. March 2018.

Hongwei Yang, Benjamin Martin, and Berthold Schenkel, On-Demand Generation and Consumption of Diazomethane in Multistep Continuous Flow Systems, Organic Process Research & Development March 2018.

Koichiro Masuda, Tomhohiro Ichitsuka, Nagatoshi Koumura, Kazuhito Sato, Shu Kobayashi, Flow fine synthesis with heterogeneous catalystsTetrahedron Feb 2018.

Gemoets, H. P. L. (2018). Enabling and accelerating C-H functionalization through continuous-flow chemistry Eindhoven: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

Jatuporn Salaklang, Veronique Maes, Matthias Conradi, Rudy Damsb and Tanja Junkers, Direct synthesis of acrylate monomers in heterogeneous continuous flow processes Reaction Chemistry and Engineering Dec 2017.

Joshua Britton and Timothy F Jamison, The assembly and
use of continuous flow systems for chemical synthesis
Nature Protocols
Oct 2017.

Dr. Martina L. Contente, Federica Dall’Oglio, Dr. Lucia Tamborini, Prof. Francesco Molinari, Prof. Francesca Paradisi, Highly Efficient Oxidation of Amines to Aldehydes with Flow-based Biocatalysis
ChemCatChem Sep 2017.

Gabriel Glotz, Rene Lebl, Doris Dallinger, C. Oliver Kappe, Integration of Bromine and Cyanogen Bromide Generators for the Telescoped Continuous Synthesis of Cyclic Guanidines Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Sep 2017.

Amanda C. Wicker, Frank A. Leibfarth and Timothy F. Jamison, Flow-IEG enables programmable thermodynamic properties in sequence-defined unimolecular macromolecules Polym. Chem. Sep 2017.

Valerio De Vitis, Federica Dall’Oglio, Andrea Pinto, Carlo De Micheli, Francesco Molinari, Paola Conti, Diego Romano, Lucia Tamborini, Chemoenzymatic Synthesis in Flow Reactors: A Rapid and Convenient Preparation of Captopril, Chemistry Open July 2017.

Michael R Chapman, Maria H. Kwan, Georgina King, Katherine E Jolley, Mariam Hussain, Shahed Hussain, Ibrahim E Salama, Carlos González Nino, Lisa A Thompson, Mary E Bayana, Adam Clayton, Bao N. Nguyen, Nicholas J Turner, Nikil Kapur, and
A. John Blacker, A Simple and Versatile Laboratory Scale CSTR for Multiphasic Continuous-Flow Chemistry and Long Residence Times Org. Process Res. Dev. June 2017.

Jinu Joseph John, SimonKuhn, Leen Braeken, and Tom Van Gerven, Temperature controlled interval contact design for ultrasound assisted liquid-liquid extraction Chem. Eng. Res. Des. June
2017.

Hannes P. L. Gemoets, Gabriele Laudadio, Kirsten Verstraete, Prof. Dr. Volker Hessel, and Dr. Timothy Noël, A Modular Flow Design for the meta-Selective C−H Arylation of Anilines Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. May 2017.

Nopphon Weeranoppanant, Andrea Adamo, Galym Saparbaiuly, Eleanor Rose, Christian Fleury, Berthold Schenkel, and Klavs F. Jensen, Design of Multistage Counter-Current Liquid–Liquid Extraction for Small-Scale Applications Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. Apr 2017.

Yi Shen, Nopphon Weeranoppanant, Lisi Xie, Yue Chen, Marcella R. Lusardi, Joseph Imbrogno, Moungi G. Bawendi and Klavs F. Jensen, Multistage extraction platform for highly efficient and fully continuous purification of nanoparticles Nanoscale Mar 2017.

C. Battilocchio, G. Iannucci, S. Wang, E. Godineau, A. Kolleth, A. De Mesmaeker and S. V. Ley Flow synthesis of cyclobutanones via [2 + 2] cycloaddition of keteneiminium salts and ethylene gas React. Chem. Eng. Mar 2017.

Joshua Britton and Colin L. Raston, Multi-step continuous-flow synthesis Chem. Soc. Rev. Jan 2017.

David Cantillo, Bernd Wolf, Roland Goetz, and C. Oliver Kappe, Continuous Flow Synthesis of a Key 1,4-Benzoxazinone Intermediate via a Nitration/Hydrogenation/Cyclization Sequence Org. Process Res. Dev. Dec 2016.

Hansjoerg Lehmann, A scalable and safe continuous flow procedure for in-line generation of diazomethane and its precursor MNU. Green Chemistry. Dec 2016.

Maryam Peer, Nopphon Weeranoppanant, Andrea Adamo, Yanjie Zhang, and Klavs F. Jensen, Biphasic catalytic hydrogen peroxide oxidation of alcohols in flow: Scale up and extraction Org. Process Res. Dev. Aug 2016.

Franz J. Strauss, David Cantillo, Javier Guerrac and C. Oliver Kappe, A laboratory-scale continuous flow chlorine generator for organic synthesis React. Chem. Eng. Aug 2016.

Baptiste Leforestiera and Markus Vögtle, Safe Generation and Direct Use of Chlorine Azide in Flow Chemistry: 1,2-Azidochlorination of Olefins and Access to Triazoles Synlett. June 2016.

Andrea Adamo, Rachel L. Beingessner, Mohsen Behnam, Jie Chen, Timothy F. Jamison, Klavs F. Jensen, Jean-Christophe M. Monbaliu, Allan S. Myerson, Eve M. Revalor, David R. Snead, Torsten Stelzer, Nopphon Weeranoppanant, Shin Yee Wong, Ping Zhang, On-demand continuous-flow production of pharmaceuticals in a compact, reconfigurable system
Science April 2016.

L Osorio-Planes, C Rodríguez-Escrich, MA Pericas, Removing the superfluous: a supported squaramide catalyst with a minimalistic linker applied to the enantioselective flow synthesis of pyranonaphthoquinones Catalysis Science & Technology Mar 2016.

Lorenzo Di Marco, Dr. Morgan Hans, Prof. Lionel Delaude and Dr. Jean-Christophe M. Monbaliu, Continuous-Flow N-Heterocyclic Carbene Generation and Organocatalysis
Chem. Eur. J. Feb 2016.

Javier Guerra, David Cantillo and C Oliver Kappe, Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis using a Macromolecular Ruthenium Complex: Reactivity and Recovery by Size-Exclusion Nanofiltration in Continuous Flow Catal. Sci. Technol. Feb 2016.

Nicolas Lamborelle, Justine F Simon, Andre LUXEN and Jean-Christophe Monbaliu, Continuous-Flow Thermolysis for the Preparation of Vinylglycine Derivatives Org. Biomol. Chem. Nov 2015.

Irina Sagamanova, Carles Rodríguez-Escrich, István Gábor Molnár, Sonia Sayalero, Ryan Gilmour, and Miquel A. Pericàs, Translating the Enantioselective Michael Reaction to a Continuous Flow Paradigm with an Immobilized, Fluorinated Organocatalyst ACS Catal. Sept 2015.

Leibfarth FA, Johnson JA, and Jamison TF, Scalable synthesis of sequence-defined, unimolecular macromolecules by Flow-IEG
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Aug 2015.

Chunhui Dai, David R. Snead, Ping Zhang, and Timothy F. Jamison, Continuous-Flow Syn and Purification of Atropine with Sequential In-Line Separations of Structurally Similar Impurities J. Flow Chem. July 2015.

Steffen Glöckner, Duc N. Tran, Richard J. Ingham, Sabine Fenner, Zoe E. Wilson, Claudio Battilocchio and Steven V. Ley,
The rapid synthesis of oxazolines and their heterogeneous oxidation to oxazoles under flow conditions Org. Biomol. Mol. Oct 2014.

Trevor A. Hamlin, Gillian M. L. Lazarus, Christopher B. Kelly, and Nicholas E. Leadbeater, A Continuous-Flow Approach to 3,3,3-Trifluoromethylpropenes: Bringing Together Grignard Addition, Peterson Elimination, Inline Extraction, and Solvent Switching. Org. Process Res. Dev. Aug 2014.

Andrea Adamo, Patrick L Heider, Nopphon Weeranoppanant, and Klavs F. Jensen, Membrane-Based, Liquid-Liquid Separator with Integrated Pressure Control. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. July 2013.

Gas-Liquid Separation

Jisong Zhang, Andrew R. Teixeira, Lars Thilo Kögl, Lu Yang, and Klavs F. Jensen Hydrodynamics of gas–liquid flow in micropacked beds: Pressure drop, liquid holdup, and two-phase model AIChE
Journal
June 2017.

Everett J. O’Neal, Chang Ho Lee, Julian Brathwaite, and Klavs F. Jensen, Continuous Nanofiltration and Recycle of an Asymmetric Ketone Hydrogenation Catalyst ACS Catal. March 2015.

Reference to separator’s theory:

Kralj, J. G.; Sahoo, H. R.; Jensen, K. F., Integrated continuous microfluidic liquid-liquid extraction. Lab Chip.2007, 7, (2), 256-263.

Reference to examples of use of liquid–liquid separators:

Sahoo, H. R.; Kralj, J. G.; Jensen, K. F., Multistep Continuous-Flow Microchemical Synthesis Involving Multiple Reactions and Separations. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46, (30), 5704-5708.

Cervera-Padrell, A. E.; Morthensen, S. T.; Lewandowski, D. J.; Skovby, T.; Kiil, S.; Gernaey, K. V., Continuous Hydrolysis and Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Intermediate Using a Miniscale Hydrophobic Membrane Separator. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2012, 16, (5), 888-900.

Flow Chemistry – Laboratory Scale

Part Number SEP-10
Width x Depth x Height 77 mm (3.03 inch) x 29 mm (1.14 inch) x 71 mm (2.79 inch)
Max Pressure 2 MPa (290 psi)
Ports 1/4 – 28 flat bottom
Wetted parts Perfluorinated polymers (ETFA, PFA)
Total Flow Rate 0-10 ml/min
Max Temperature 130 ℃
Internal Volume ~0.5ml
Max Gas Flow Rate ~100 sccm

*Scroll left to see more of the table

Flow Chemistry – Pilot Scale

Part Number SEP—200 (SS/HS/FP)
Width x Depth x Height 206 mm (8.11 inch) x 26 mm (1.02 inch) x 196 mm (7.71 inch)
Max Pressure 2 MPa (290 psi)
Ports Swagelok for ¼‘’ OD
Wetted parts Model HS: Hastelloy C 276, PTFE, PFA, FFKM
Model SS: SS 316, PTFE, PFA, FFKM
Model FP: ETFE, PTFE, PFA, FFKM
Total Flow Rate 20-200 ml/min
Max Temperature 130 ℃
Internal Volume ~35ml
Max Gas Flow Rate ~1000 sccm

*Scroll left to see more of the table

Flow Chemistry – Production Scale

Part Number SEP—3000 (HS/SS)
Width x Depth x Height 460 mm (18.0 inch) x 150 mm (6.0 inch) x 607 mm (23.9 inch)
Max Pressure 1 MPa/ 2 MPa (290 psi) with metal external tubes
Ports Swagelok 1/2’’ OD
Wetted parts Model HS: Hastelloy C 276, PTFE, PFA, FFKM
Model SS: SS316, PTFE, PFA, FFKM
Total Flow Rate 200-3000 ml/min
Max Temperature 130 ℃
Internal Volume ~350ml
Max Gas Flow Rate ~10000 sccm

*Scroll left to see more of the table

Ordering Information

FAQs about Zaiput separators

What can Zaiput separators be used for?

Zaiput separators separate any process fluid containing more than 2 immiscible phases. This includes oil/water, aqueous/organic, organic/organic, gas/liquid and more. The Zaiput separators can be inserted into any continuous or batch process for inline or downstream separation.

What is the pressure rating of the Zaiput separators?

Thanks to their special design with a metal shell, Zaiput separators can be operated at a high pressure, up to 290 psi/2 MPa. However, it is important to ensure that the pressures of the two outlets are not considerably different. Consult our technical support team for special use at high pressure.

Two phases have very similar densities. Can Zaiput separators separate them?

Separation in the Zaiput separator is an interfacial phenomena, not gravity-based. Therefore, the Zaiput separators can be used with any fluid mixture, regardless of their density difference.

Why is the pressure control important for successful membrane operation?

Successful membrane separation requires an optimal pressure difference across the two sides of the membrane, i.e. retained and permeate sides. Zaiput separators incorporate an on-board pressure controller such that users no longer need to keep regulating the pressures of the two sides of the membrane. Click here to learn more about how it works.

What makes the Zaiput separators unique among conventional extractors?

Zaiput separators provide instantaneous, complete phase separation. They require neither a coalescing plate nor a settling tank. Their unique design eliminates the need for electronic apparatus for agitating parts or online process control. Additionally, they are very easy-to-use, inexpensive, and perfectly designed for a wide range of chemical environments (e.g., organic solvents, acidic solutions, high pressure).

Can Zaiput separators handle acidic/basic solutions?

All of the wetted parts inside the Zaiput separators are highly chemical-compatible. The metal shell does not contact the fluid. Zaiput separators can handle most organic solvents as well as corrosive solutions.

Do Zaiput separators perform differently if I heat or cool them?

Temperature affects interfacial phenomena. Heating tends to decrease the interfacial tension of liquid mixtures. At very high temperatures, the liquid mixture is close to the miscibility region and may be difficult to separate. Contact us to consult our technical support team for special use with extreme temperatures.

What throughput can the Zaiput separators accommodate?

Currently, we provide Zaiput separation devices in three versions, SEP-10, SEP-200 and SEP-3000. These versions cover flows ranging from 0 to 3000 mL/min.

Is the Zaiput separation device the same thing as a cross-flow filtration unit?

The Zaiput separation devices separate immiscible fluids based on their wettability. This is different from filtration which uses a size-exclusion technique. Filtration generally removes solid from one liquid phase (either a pure liquid or a miscible liquid mixture).

What are the recommended chemical processes to use with the Zaiput separator?

Zaiput’s separators can be used for any type of chemical process, in either the laboratory or in an industrial setting. They are suitable for high-value chemicals thanks to their very small dead volume and high efficiency. Below is a glimpse of potential applications:

  • Inline workup for synthesis (organic/inorganic)
  • Separation of biphasic mixtures
  • Homogeneous catalyst recovery
  • Liquid-liquid extraction
  • Liquid-gas separation
  • Recovery of pharmaceuticals or fine chemical compounds
  • Separation of alcohols from organic solvents
  • Removal of excess starting materials

How often should I change a membrane after use with chemicals?

The membranes used in the Zaiput separators are highly compatible with chemicals so it can function for weeks. However, depending on how clean the separated fluid is, the membrane may need to be replaced more frequently. This is especially true if the fluid contains a significant amount of solid particles/precipitates.